Anemia is a condition in which you lack enough healthy red blood cells to carry adequate oxygen to your body's tissues. Having anemia, also referred to as low hemoglobin, can make you feel tired and weak.
There are many forms of anemia, each with its own cause. Anemia can be temporary or long term and can range from mild to severe. In most cases, anemia has more than one cause. See your doctor if you suspect that you have anemia. It can be a warning sign of serious illness.
Treatments for anemia, which depend on the cause, range from taking supplements to having medical procedures. You might be able to prevent some types of anemia by eating a healthy, varied diet.
- Aplastic anemia
- Iron deficiency anemia
- Sickle cell anemia
- Vitamin deficiency anemia
Anemia signs and symptoms vary depending on the cause and severity of anemia. Depending on the causes of your anemia, you might have no symptoms.
Signs and symptoms, if they do occur, might include:
- Pale or yellowish skin
- Irregular heartbeats
- Shortness of breath
- Dizziness or lightheadedness
- Chest pain
- Cold hands and feet
At first, anemia can be so mild that you don't notice it. But symptoms worsen as anemia worsens.
When to see a doctor
Make an appointment with your doctor if you feel fatigued and you don't know why.
Fatigue has many causes besides anemia, so don't assume that if you're tired you must be anemic. Some people learn that their hemoglobin is low, which indicates anemia, when they donate blood. If you're told that you can't donate because of low hemoglobin, make an appointment with your doctor.
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Anemia can be due to a condition present at birth (congenital) or to a condition you develop (acquired). Anemia occurs when your blood doesn't have enough red blood cells.
This can happen if:
- Your body doesn't make enough red blood cells
- Bleeding causes you to lose red blood cells more quickly than they can be replaced
- Your body destroys red blood cells
What red blood cells do
Your body makes three types of blood cells — white blood cells to fight infection, platelets to help your blood clot, and red blood cells to carry oxygen from your lungs to the rest of your body and carbon dioxide from the body back to the lungs.
Red blood cells contain hemoglobin — an iron-rich protein that gives blood its red color. Hemoglobin enables red blood cells to carry oxygen from your lungs to all parts of your body and to carry carbon dioxide from other parts of the body to your lungs to be exhaled.
Most blood cells, including red blood cells, are produced regularly in your bone marrow — a spongy material found within the cavities of many of your large bones. To produce hemoglobin and red blood cells, your body needs iron, vitamin B-12, folate and other nutrients from the foods you eat.
Causes of anemia
Different types of anemia have different causes. They include:
Iron deficiency anemia. This most common type of anemia is caused by a shortage of iron in your body. Your bone marrow needs iron to make hemoglobin. Without adequate iron, your body can't produce enough hemoglobin for red blood cells.
Without iron supplementation, this type of anemia occurs in many pregnant women. It's also caused by blood loss, such as from heavy menstrual bleeding; an ulcer in the stomach or small bowel; cancer of the large bowel; and regular use of some pain relievers that are available without a prescription, especially aspirin, which can cause inflammation of the stomach lining resulting in blood loss. It's important to determine the source of iron deficiency to prevent recurrence of the anemia.
- Vitamin deficiency anemia. Besides iron, your body needs folate and vitamin B-12 to produce enough healthy red blood cells. A diet lacking in these and other key nutrients can cause decreased red blood cell production. Some people who consume enough B-12 aren't able to absorb the vitamin. This can lead to vitamin deficiency anemia, also known as pernicious anemia.
- Anemia of inflammation. Certain diseases — such as cancer, HIV/AIDS, rheumatoid arthritis, kidney disease, Crohn's disease and other acute or chronic inflammatory diseases — can interfere with the production of red blood cells.
- Aplastic anemia. This rare, life-threatening anemia occurs when your body doesn't produce enough red blood cells. Causes of aplastic anemia include infections, certain medicines, autoimmune diseases and exposure to toxic chemicals.
- Anemias associated with bone marrow disease. A variety of diseases, such as leukemia and myelofibrosis, can cause anemia by affecting blood production in your bone marrow. The effects of these types of cancer and cancer-like disorders vary from mild to life-threatening.
- Hemolytic anemias. This group of anemias develops when red blood cells are destroyed faster than bone marrow can replace them. Certain blood diseases increase red blood cell destruction. You can inherit a hemolytic anemia, or you can develop it later in life.
- Sickle cell anemia. This inherited and sometimes serious condition is a hemolytic anemia. It's caused by a defective form of hemoglobin that forces red blood cells to assume an abnormal crescent (sickle) shape. These irregular blood cells die prematurely, resulting in a chronic shortage of red blood cells.
These factors place you at increased risk of anemia:
- A diet lacking in certain vitamins and minerals. A diet consistently low in iron, vitamin B-12, folate and copper increases your risk of anemia.
- Intestinal disorders. Having an intestinal disorder that affects the absorption of nutrients in your small intestine — such as Crohn's disease and celiac disease — puts you at risk of anemia.
- Menstruation. In general, women who haven't had menopause have a greater risk of iron deficiency anemia than do men and postmenopausal women. Menstruation causes the loss of red blood cells.
- Pregnancy. Being pregnant and not taking a multivitamin with folic acid and iron, increases your risk of anemia.
Chronic conditions. If you have cancer, kidney failure or another chronic condition, you could be at risk of anemia of chronic disease. These conditions can lead to a shortage of red blood cells.
Slow, chronic blood loss from an ulcer or other source within your body can deplete your body's store of iron, leading to iron deficiency anemia.
- Family history. If your family has a history of an inherited anemia, such as sickle cell anemia, you also might be at increased risk of the condition.
- Other factors. A history of certain infections, blood diseases and autoimmune disorders increases your risk of anemia. Alcoholism, exposure to toxic chemicals and the use of some medications can affect red blood cell production and lead to anemia.
- Age. People over age 65 are at increased risk of anemia.
Left untreated, anemia can cause many health problems, such as:
- Extreme fatigue. Severe anemia can make you so tired that you can't complete everyday tasks.
- Pregnancy complications. Pregnant women with folate deficiency anemia can be more likely to have complications, such as premature birth.
- Heart problems. Anemia can lead to a rapid or irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia). When you're anemic your heart pumps more blood to make up for the lack of oxygen in the blood. This can lead to an enlarged heart or heart failure.
- Death. Some inherited anemias, such as sickle cell anemia, can lead to life-threatening complications. Losing a lot of blood quickly results in acute, severe anemia and can be fatal. Among older people, anemia is associated with an increased risk of death.
Many types of anemia can't be prevented. But you can avoid iron deficiency anemia and vitamin deficiency anemias by eating a diet that includes a variety of vitamins and minerals, including:
- Iron. Iron-rich foods include beef and other meats, beans, lentils, iron-fortified cereals, dark green leafy vegetables and dried fruit.
- Folate. This nutrient, and its synthetic form folic acid, can be found in fruits and fruit juices, dark green leafy vegetables, green peas, kidney beans, peanuts, and enriched grain products, such as bread, cereal, pasta and rice.
- Vitamin B-12. Foods rich in vitamin B-12 include meat, dairy products, and fortified cereal and soy products.
- Vitamin C. Foods rich in vitamin C include citrus fruits and juices, peppers, broccoli, tomatoes, melons and strawberries. These also help increase iron absorption.
If you're concerned about getting enough vitamins and minerals from food, ask your doctor whether a multivitamin might help.
By Mayo Clinic Staff
Feb. 11, 2022
What is the main cause of anemia? ›
The most common cause of anemia is not having enough iron. Your body needs iron to make hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is an iron-rich protein that gives the red color to blood. It carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body.What are the 10 causes of anemia? ›
- Chemotherapy or other medications affecting the bone marrow cells responsible for making red blood cells.
- Iron deficiency. ...
- Lack of vitamins needed for red blood cells. ...
- Low levels of erythropoietin. ...
- Chronic inflammation. ...
- Bone marrow disorders.
Weakness. Pale skin. Chest pain, fast heartbeat or shortness of breath. Headache, dizziness or lightheadedness.What is the fastest way to cure anemia? ›
To treat your anemia, your doctor may suggest eating more meat—especially red meat (such as beef or liver), as well as chicken, turkey, pork, fish, and shellfish. Nonmeat foods that are good sources of iron include: Spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables.How serious is being anemic? ›
Undiagnosed or untreated iron-deficiency anemia may cause serious complications such as fatigue, headaches, restless legs syndrome, heart problems, pregnancy complications, and developmental delays in children. Iron-deficiency anemia can also make other chronic conditions worse or cause their treatments to work poorly.What are red flags of anemia? ›
Warning signs of anemia you shouldn't ignore
Persistent fatigue. Weakness. Dizziness. Shortness of breath.
Mild anemia is a common and treatable condition that can develop in anyone. It may come about suddenly or over time, and may be caused by your diet, medicines you take, or another medical condition. Anemia can also be chronic, meaning it lasts a long time and may never go away completely.When should you worry about anemia? ›
Talk to your doctor if you have risk factors for anemia or notice any signs or symptoms of anemia including: Persistent fatigue, breathlessness, rapid heart rate, pale skin, or any other symptoms of anemia; seek emergency care for any trouble breathing or change in your heart beat.What is the number one symptom of anemia? ›
Fatigue — feeling too tired to manage your activities — is the most noticeable anemia symptom. Other symptoms may include: Shortness of breath (dyspnea): This is the feeling you can't catch your breath or take a deep breath. Dizziness: This is feeling lightheaded or unsteady on your feet.How do you suddenly become anemic? ›
anemia due to certain medications, mechanical factors (a leaky heart valve or aneurysm), infection or an autoimmune disease. Anemia of increased blood loss is seen in conditions such as ulcers, piles (hemorrhoids) and gastritis.
What foods should I avoid with anemia? ›
Don't eat iron-rich foods with foods or beverages that block iron absorption. These include coffee or tea, eggs, foods high in oxalates, and foods high in calcium. Eat iron-rich foods with vitamin C-rich foods, such as oranges, tomatoes, or strawberries, to improve absorption.What does anemia fatigue feel like? ›
If you're feeling tired or weak, having trouble sleeping and are unable to tolerate even moderate exercise, anemia could be the culprit. Anemia develops when there aren't enough healthy red blood cells to carry oxygen through your body.What low iron feels like? ›
tiredness and lack of energy. shortness of breath. noticeable heartbeats (heart palpitations) pale skin.What is the last stage of anemia? ›
The last stage is iron deficiency anemia. It is characterized by a low hemoglobin concentration with small (microcytic), pale (hypochromic) RBCs. Symptoms include fatigue upon exertion, weakness, headaches, apathy, pallor, poor resistance to cold temperatures, low physical work capacity, and poor immune function.What drink is high in iron? ›
- Apple juice.
- Apricot nectar.
- Beef broth.
- Beet juice.
- Cocoa using natural cocoa powder.
- “Green” smoothies. Usually containing ingredients such as kale, spinach, celery, Swiss chard, wheatgrass, cucumber, parsley, and mint.
- Orange juice.
- Pea protein smoothies.
Iron-deficient people experience low energy levels and sudden weight gain because of an underactive thyroid gland.Can anemia affect sleeping? ›
The presence of anemia was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of having insomnia in adults.How do I fix my anemia? ›
Treatment for this form of anemia usually involves taking iron supplements and changing your diet. For some people, this might involve receiving iron through a vein. If the cause of iron deficiency is loss of blood — other than from menstruation — the source of the bleeding must be located and the bleeding stopped.Can anemia ever be cured? ›
A bone marrow transplant, also known as a stem cell transplant, is an option if you can't make healthy red blood cells. In this procedure, your bone marrow is replaced with donor marrow that can make healthy cells. This is the only cure for some type of anemia, such as paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.When should you go to the ER for anemia? ›
Call Your Doctor About Anemia If:
Persistent fatigue, breathlessness, rapid heart rate, pale skin, or any other symptoms of anemia; seek emergency care for any trouble breathing or change in your heart beat.